1610 – Galileo Galilei makes his first observation of the four Galilean moons: Ganymede, Callisto, Io and Europa, although he is not able to distinguish the last two until the following day.

1738 – A peace treaty is signed between Peshwa Bajirao and Jai Singh II following the Maratha victory in the Battle of Bhopal, India.

1904 – The distress signal ‘CQD’ is established only to be replaced two years later by ‘SOS’. This will be used within the decade by the stricken liner Titanic.

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